Land Treatment Exploration Tool
Land Treatment Exploration Tool
These instructions will help you work through the Exploration Tool. Both the Exploration Tool and this user guide are still in Beta testing, and thus are subject to change. For additional questions, comments, or improvements you would like to see on the Exploration Tool or this user guide please contact email@example.com.
If you are interested in learning more about the Exploration Tool, we will be hosting a weekly call every Tuesday from 10-11am MT for users to join for a live demo or question and answer session. If you would like to join us on one of these sessions or need immediate assistance please email LTDL_Project@usgs.gov for more information.
First, navigate to the Start Planning button at the top of the home page (Figure 1 D). The Exploration Tool will open in a new browser tab and will start you at the first step of the process.
Planning Map - After clicking the Start Planning button, you will see the Planning Map on the main pane (Figure 1). You can change the basemap by selecting Switch Basemap in the upper right-hand corner of the map (Figure 1 G). Pan the map by holding a left click and moving the mouse. A single left click acts as an identify tool to view attributes of current features displayed on the map. Use the scroll wheel of your mouse to zoom in and out. If at any time you wish to export your map to a PDF, selectPrint Map at the upper right-hand corner, just underneath the Switch Basemap option (Figure 1 M). Once the PDF is ready, the Print button will change to a Printout link. You can print an unlimited number of map iterations with different layers and/or scales.
Left Side Pane - The left side of the screen is generally where the user will interact with the Exploration Tool. There are two main tabs in this left-hand section. The first is Plan My Treatment where you will enter your planned treatment area, select summarization layers, search similar treatments for useful information, and filter the results (Figure 1 F). The Layers/Legend tab is where you interact with the layers you want to view on the map (Figure 1 G).
Plan My Treatment -
Steps involved in planning a treatment are described in detail below.
Layers are grouped into categories and selecting the category will expand the section to show you the available layers (Figure 2 A, E). You can turn layers on/off by checking or unchecking the boxes to the left of the layer name. Once you select a layer, a '+' symbol will appear on the right side of the layer name (Figure 2). If the selected layer group contains more than one layer, you will see a list of layers contained in that group under the Sublayers tab within the group (Figure 2 C). If you click this you will see a Legend informing you what each color within the map represents and an Opacity slider so that more than one background layer can be displayed on the map at once. We recommend you limit your map to no more than 3 visible background layers at once to avoid any confusion caused by multiple background layers with similar color schemes.
Upper Tabs - The tabs within Start Planning (Figure 1 H-L Planning Map, Site History, Results, Report, and USFWS IPaC) start out with a default setting and view. Additional information and detail will be added as you move through the planning process. To learn more about the information in these tabs, click the corresponding section head below.
Provide a name, treatment type, and file name for your planned treatment. Please keep the typed text short and descriptive as they will be added to the Report and included on all exported material. If you are using the Exploration Tool to evaluate and plan a particular type of treatment (e.g, a prescribed burn), the treatment type needs to be selected from the dropdown menu. If you are planning a post wildfire rehabilitation, you select 'ESR Wildfire Project' from the dropdown menu. This will prompt a multiselect section to appear where you can select multiple general treatment types. The 'File Name' is how your exported file will be named. To use the 'Project Name' as the 'File name', select the 'same as project name' box under the field. Once you have named your planned treatment, select Next Step >> to continue the planning process.
The Exploration Tool is designed to assist you with the planning process once you have, at minimum, a general idea of where you are going to establish a land treatment. You can upload an existing treatment boundary as a compressed (.zip) shapefile or draw a boundary using our interactive web map. The View layers you can turn on and off link will take you back to the Layers/Legend tab to add or remove layers that might help with determining a boundary. Select Next Step >> to continue the planning process.
I already have a shapefile: If you already have an area identified and stored as a shapefile, you can upload a zipped folder containing the shapefile by selecting the Upload zip file button (Figure 4 A). The map will automatically zoom to the location of your uploaded shapefile. If you want to edit your shape, you can click on the shape to view and manipulate the vertices.
I don't have a shapefile or I want to add additional areas to my uploaded treatment: You can add features using the Rectangle, Polygon,
Rectangle: Left-click (holding the mouse button down) on the map and drag diagonally to create a rectangular area. The rectangle is finished when you release the mouse.
Polygon: Left-click (and release) on the map at each location you want the polygon to change direction (creating a new vertex). Double click to add the final vertex and complete the feature.
Freehand: Left-click (holding the mouse button down) on the map and draw to create an area, much like you would with a pencil. Release the mouse when finished to complete the area.
You can create or upload multiple polygon areas for a single treatment. A record is created for each area and displayed in the left-hand section. You can zoom to or delete these individual areas by clicking zoom or delete next to each polygon record (Figure 4 C).
You can delete your entire treatment boundary (uploaded or drawn), by selecting Remove all user polygons. If you want to export your proposed treatment polygons click kml (google earth), geoJSON (open source spatial format), or shapefile (Figure 4 D). Any of these formats can be incorporated into most GIS applications. Once you are satisfied with your proposed treatment boundary, proceed to Step 3 by selecting Next Step >>.
This step directs you to theSite History, IPaC, and Planning Map to explore different aspects of the site characteristics. See the Site History section of this guide below to navigate through that tab. See the USFWS Information for Planning and Consultation section below for help with IPaC tab. See the Getting Started portion of this guide for help with the Planning Map.
In Step 4 you can select layer attributes inside your planned treatment boundary to be summarized and reported as tables within the Report tab (Figure 5). Continuous layers, such as elevation, precipitation and temperature, will be summarized across the treatment area with a mean, range, and standard deviation. Categorical layers, such as soil temperature regimes, heat load, and conifer invasion risk, will have the categories intersecting the treatment area along with the percentage and acreage of each intersecting category. If you want to review the layers before making a decision, navigate to theLayers/Legend tab at the top of the left side pane and toggle them on and off. Not all layers are available across the entire U.S. Once you have made your selection, proceed to Step 5 by selecting Add to Report.
NOTE: These calculations are made on the fly and may take a few minutes. If your internet speeds are slow, you may experience data loss. If you want to add additional attribute summaries to your report or certain layers did not calculate due to data loss, re-run the summarization by clickingAdd to Report again. You can proceed to Step 5 before calculations are complete, but it is best to wait until the processing is complete before selecting Query LTDL in Step 5. The results will appear automatically within the Report tab when the calculations are finished.
Wait! This is all the information I need! If you are only using the tool to view summary data of a planned area, then you can export this information without finishing the remaining steps. When you click Add to Report at the bottom of the Step 3, the site will automatically show you the developing report in the Report tab. If this is all you require, then you can export the report to PDF. You can learn additional information about the Report within the Report tab section of this user guide. While the clipping geoprocessing is running, we encourage you to explore the Site History tab to learn more about your proposed treatment area.
Background: The purpose of this step is to find previously reported land treatments that may contain useful information to help you improve the design of your planned treatment or provide justification for your current plans. Currently, previous treatment data from the Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL, https://ltdl.wr.usgs.gov) is the only available, detailed treatment data source within the tool. However, additional sources of treatment layers are included to view in the Layers/Legend. LTDL data consist of legacy Bureau of Land Management (BLM) treatments that were collected from BLM offices across the west with a few treatments dating all the way back to the early 1900s. These data were collected by gathering and entering the best information available at the time of data collection. However, some records have been lost to time, are incomplete, or are still being entered. Due to time constraints on data collection and data entry, a very limited number of treatments within the last 5 years have been entered. The LTDL team members are revisiting field offices to collect the most recent treatment data to fill in this gap. If you notice something missing or incorrect about LTDL data, please notify the LTDL at firstname.lastname@example.org.
How Do I Search for Treatments? There are two main search methods: Spatially by buffer or boundary and by a statistical Bray Curtis Dissimilarity Model (Figure 6 A, B). First, select a buffer or boundary search distance:
If you select a 'User-defined buffer distance' a section will appear where you can change and view your buffer distance (Figure 7 A). You can Show or Remove the buffer or region with the respective button. The buffer or region will show up as a grey shaded region around your treatment on the Planning Map. A treatment will be included in the query results if any part falls within the buffer.
Once you determine your search distance, select if you would like to calculate similarity rankings for selected attributes (Figure 6 B, Figure 7 B). This step is optional, and you can just select by buffer or boundary to move forward to the next step. If selected, the similarity index will run a model comparing your proposed treatment to the LTDL treatments within the buffer based on a pre-defined set of characteristics (climate, landform topography, or heat load). Your proposed treatment is measured against the LTDL treatments using a Bray-Curtis dissimilarity calculation (Bray and Curtis 1957, McCune and Grace 2002). Similarity models are calculated on the fly and increasing the number of similarity statistics or treatments within the search radius will increase search time.
Climate - This model extracts the 30 year (1981-2010) monthly averages from the PRISM 800m precipitation and mean temperature rasters (http://www.prism.oregonstate.edu/). Using monthly temperature and precipitation, as opposed to annual climate variables, ensures that the similar treatments match seasonally and not annually to provide a better fit.
Heat Load - This model combines extracted values from the Heat load raster. Heat load, a unitless value from 0 (low incident radiation) to 1 (high incident radiation), is calculated using aspect, slope, and latitude (McCune and Dylan 2002). Given the high variability possible within a small area, we classified heat load into 6 categories ranging from very low to very high.
Landform Topography - Landform classifications were created by the USGS as a way to categorize the landscape into different categories based on the terrain (https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3085/). This model extracts landform class percent coverages within the planned treatment area and compares those categories and percentages to those within the LTDL polygons.
If you select one or more of the similarity models (Figure 7 B, Climate, Landform, and Heat load), returned similar treatment results within your boundary or buffer will be ranked based on each model. Only treatments within your buffer or boundary area are tested. If you select a large buffer or boundary, returned treatments may overwhelm the geoprocessing and fail to return results (Figure 8). You can reduce the number of returned treatments by selecting a smaller buffer or boundary.
Once you have made your selections, click the Query LTDL button to run your query (Figure 6 C, Figure 7 C). Be patient for query results, this amount of on the fly processing takes time. The status of the calculations is displayed along the left side panel (Figure 6 D, Figure 7 D). The query status will read 'Done' and the Results table will be filled in when the processing is finished. If the query status returns an error message, you can try and submit the query again (Figure 8). If the message persists, try reducing the size of the search area or contact the Exploration Tool staff at email@example.com.
This section will help you filter through the LTDL treatments Results that were generated when you selected Query LTDL in Step 5. Filtering will help you identify those treatments that are most similar to your planned treatment to reference and learn from. You can select multiple options per dropdown by making additional selections from the drop down. The selected values will appear in blue under each search criteria (Figure 9). To remove search values, hover over the value and click it. To explain the field, click the '?' to the right of the filter name.
The filter fields are as follows:
Once similar treatments have been returned and presented in the Results tab and you have filtered your results (Figure 10 A, if needed), you can make a final selection of only the most relevant treatments to compare to your planned treatment and export them in the report (Figure 10). Each treatment returned contains basic attribute information with an expandable window for additional information (Figure 10 D). For full attribute information on a treatment you will need to visit the LTDL (https://ltdl.wr.usgs.gov).
Table Structure - Column Information: The column headers are found along the top of the table. Each column can be used to order the table by clicking on the column header. Treatment evaluation color-coded columns on the right side of the table can be used to quickly identify the data quality. In general, the more green columns a treatment has, the more complete and potentially useful it is. See descriptions below for each column within the treatment evaluation section along with other columns. Depending on what search criteria you initially used, not all columns will be shown at all times. An exhaustive list is as follows:
Climate Rank: If you selected a climate similarity model then this column will appear and populate. The value represents the relative similarity to the planned treatment area. A value of 1 shows the most similar treatment (in regards to climate).
Heat load Rank: If you selected a heat load similarity model then this column will appear and populate. The value represents the relative similarity to the planned treatment area. A value of 1 shows the most similar treatment (in regards to heat load).
Landform Rank: If you selected a landform similarity model then this column will appear and populate. The value represents the relative similarity to the planned treatment area. A value of 1 shows the most similar treatment (in regards to landform).
Project: This field is always visible. It shows the project name that the treatment falls within.
Treatment Category: This field is always visible. It shows the major category that the treatment falls within. Possible categories are: Biological Control, Closure/Exclosure, Cultural Protection, Facilities/Fences/Roads, Herbicide/Weeds/Chemical, Other, Prescribed Burn, Seeding, Soil Stabilization, Vegetation/Soil Manipulation.
Treatment Type: This field is always visible. It shows the most specific treatment type name. There are 237 possible names.
Year: This field is always visible. It shows the treatment start year.
Imp: This is the first color-coded column included for treatment evaluation. Implementation status of the treatment is based on the best available data during LTDL data entry for this treatment.
I - Implemented (green)
U - Unknown Implementation (yellow)
Poly: This is a color-coded column included for treatment evaluation. Implementation status of the GIS shape based on available data when LTDL data entry for this treatment occurred.
AP - Approximate point created by LTDL data entry personnel, true location unknown (yellow)
BG - Digitized by BLM field office personnel, using a GPS unit on the ground or aircraft (green)
BA - Digitized by BLM field office personnel, using computer program from aerial imagery (green)
BI - Digitized by BLM field office personnel, using computer program from satellite imagery (green)
BP - Digitized by BLM field office personnel, using paper map (green)
FS - Digitized by Forest Service personnel, method unknown (yellow)
LC - Digitized by LTDL data entry personnel using a confirmed map (green)
LU - Digitized by LTDL data entry personnel using a map of unknown origin (yellow)
LP - Digitized by LTDL data entry personnel using a planned map (yellow)
LI - Digitized by LTDL data entry personnel using location information within documentation (yellow)
LV - Digitized by LTDL data entry personnel, merged map from various sources (yellow)
PS - Digitized by NPS field office personnel, method unknown (yellow)
EU - Digitized from an external website, method unknown (yellow)
GS - Exported from an internal USGS Fire Perimeter Layer (yellow)
SL: This is a color-coded column included for treatment evaluation. This shows the status of the seed list based on available data when LTDL data entry for this treatment occurred.
C - Confirmed seed list (green)
U - Unknown seed list (yellow)
P - Planned seed list (yellow)
N - No seed least (yellow)
NA - Not applicable (non-seeding treatment) (white)
Res: This is a color-coded column included for treatment evaluation. This field indicates if there is text written in the 'Effectiveness and Monitoring' field in the LTDL. Text in this field is typically qualitative. This data is only current to the available data when LTDL data entry for this treatment occurred.
Y - Yes, there is text written in this field (green)
N - No, this field has no value (yellow)
Mon: This is a color-coded column included for treatment evaluation. This field indicates if the 'Monitored' field is selected in the LTDL. This field is to be checked in the LTDL when quantitative monitoring data for at least one of the treatments is available. Data in the LTDL are not continuously updated. Therefore, monitoring data may exist at the BLM offices, but not within the LTDL.
Y - Yes, quantifiable monitoring data indicated in documentation (green)
N - No quantifiable monitoring data currently available (yellow)
Ver: This is a color-coded column included for treatment evaluation. This field indicates in a BLM personnel has checked and verified the information for the project in the LTDL.
Y - Yes, a BLM employee familiar with the treatment has verified this information (green)
N - No, a BLM employee familiar with the treatment has not verified this information (yellow)
Table Structure - Row Information: To include a treatment in the final report located in the Report tab, check the box on the left side of the table. To see additional treatment information, click the green + button. Information in this expanded list includes:
Treatment ID: This is a unique identifying number for the treatment.
BLM Field Office: This is the BLM field office the treatment falls within.
Date Confirmation: This shows if the dates are confirmed or not.
Unknown: Date confirmation is unknown
Estimated: The dates are estimated
Confirmed: The dates are confirmed
Start Date: Start date of the treatment
End Date: End date of the treatment
Units: The type of unit used (most often acres)
Number of Units: The number of units
GIS Feature Type: This is the type of shapefile (line, point, multipoint, polygon, and polyline) loaded for this particular treatment.
Feature Status (also seen in the 'Poly' column): This is the status of the GIS boundary at the time of LTDL data entry of the treatment. This field may say: confirmed, unknown, planned, or approximate point.
GIS calculated acres: This is the number of acres calculated from ArcGIS
BLM Reported Success: This field shows the success category as listed in the documentation from the BLM. Success categories are not comparable across treatments and care should be taken in interpretation.
Objectives: This is a text description of objectives the treatment was trying to accomplish.
Treatment Results (also noted by the column 'Res'): This is a text description of the effectiveness and results of the treatment.
Species List Status (also seen in the 'SL' column): This is the status of the included seed list if the treatment is a seeding treatment. Options are: confirmed in field, confirmed in GIS, confirmed on paper, in progress, no seed list, not applicable, plan, and unknown seed list origin.
Seeds or Seedlings Planted: This field informs you if the treatment used seeds, seedlings, or if it is unknown.
Seed List Table: If the treatment includes a seed list, then the seed list table will appear. It includes information on: USDA plant symbol, species name, common name, bulk seed pounds, bulk pounds/acre, PLS rate, PLS seed pounds, PLS pounds/acre.
Checkbox: The right side of the expanded box includes checkboxes for what documentation and general information is available for the project (note - this is not specific to the treatment).
Filtering: To filter the list of treatments, use the left side pane in Step 5.
Exporting: Exporting the entire table of Land Treatment Digital Library Matches can be done in the Results tab by selecting one of the two options: Copy Selected Rows and Save as Excel. Both functions will copy or export all rows that are visible. You can update and export a new list by using the filters in Step 5. You can also view the basic information from the selected treatments when you are finished designing your report in the Report tab, as this table is included at the bottom of that report.
Previously Treated Areas: Within the top portion of Site History, you can view a map of areas within and around the proposed treatment boundary that have a record of a previous land treatment including (1) unknown implementation and implemented treatments or (2) implemented treatments only in the LTDL (Figure 11). Unknown treatments are included because LTDL data entry specialists are not always able to verify if a treatment took place based on the data available, though many of those treatments likely did occur. Therefore, the LTDL and Exploration Tool team highly recommend verifying that treatments (both those that are unknown or implemented) took place by consulting with the BLM field office that conducted the treatment.
Previously Treated Areas Maps: The two previously treated areas maps allow you to (1) view various treatment layers represented as count rasters describing the number of times an area has been treated (Figure 11 C) and (2) displaying the type of treatments to better view where specific treatments occurred on the landscape (Figure 11 D). For example, you can view all treatments that overlap the proposed boundary or even refine it to display only seeding treatments. The default view is all LTDL treatments. You can also choose to view treatments with 'Confirmed Implementation' or all treatments under the 'Confirmed and Unknown Implementation' option. The legends display the count of times an area has been treated and the types of treatments, respectively. Both maps are linked and will display the same results (e.g., when you zoom on one, then the other also zooms). Toggle the view of what is on the maps by selecting from the drop down menu and implementation status options (Figure 11).
Previously Treated Areas Annotation Box: There is a text box beneath the treatment history section where the user can annotate notes they would like to include in the report. This text box is specifically for text regarding the treatment history of the planned treatment area.
Overlapping Treatments from the Land Treatment Digital Library Table: Beneath the previously treated area maps and annotation box are a list of the treatments that overlap your planned treatment polygon and the percentage overlap. The column 'Treatment_Type' includes the general category of the treatment. The 'Project' column displays the name of the project, and if clicked, a new tab will open to the LTDL site where additional, detailed information about this project is found.
NOTE: You must have a login to access the LTDL project details. To request access, email the LTDL (firstname.lastname@example.org).
The last column, 'Percent_Overlap' displays the percentage of the planned area intersected by the LTDL treatment. You can re-order the table by clicking on a column header.
Fire History: The fire history for the proposed treatment area is the next section in Site History. The map displays the proposed treatment boundary and one of three wildfire layers: 1) Number of Times Burned (1870-2015), 2) First Year Burned (1870-2015), or 3) Most Recent Year Burned (1870-2015; Figure 14). See Welty et al. (2017) to learn more about how these wildfire layers were created. To change the wildfire layer, use the checkboxes on the right (Figure 12 B). The Legend beneath the layer names will display the symbology for the selected layer (Figure 12 C). Use the legend to identify how many times different areas around and within the proposed treatment boundary have burned. The Opacity tab allows you to change the transparency of the fire layer on the map.
Wildfire History Annotation Box:There is a text box beneath the wildfire history section where the user can annotate notes they would like to include in the report. This text box is specifically for text regarding the wildfire history of the planned treatment area.
Historical Climate: The historical climate for your planned treated area are summarized in the climatogram underneath the wildfire history section (Figure 12). Monthly precipitation and temperature information are averaged over a 30-year period (Figure 13, 1981-2010). Months are found on the x-axis. Precipitation is found as the blue bars and associated with the left-hand y-axis. Minimum (blue), mean (green), and maximum (red) temperature are found as the points connect by lines that are associated with the right-hand y-axis. The climatogram can be exported as a pdf or a png file.
Resources: One of the goals of the Exploration Tool is to integrate directly with other tools that allow users to spatially upload a polygon and display the exterior tool's results within the Exploration Tool itself. We are piloting this effort with the Information for the Planning and Consultation (IPaC) site (https://ecos.fws.gov/ipac/) within the USFWS IPaC tab. Your polygon is automatically uploaded to generate IPaC results. You can sign in for full reporting access, but a draft report (Print Resource List) can be generated without login access. Clicking Define Project will require a user login to their system, but will create a more thorough report if a USFWS IPaC report is required. Attributes that can be viewed with or without a login include (Figure 14):
Endangered Species: this will provide you information on listed species in your proposed treatment area. Data can be viewed as photos or lists.
Migratory Birds: this will provide you information on the migratory birds that are listed as USFWS Birds of Conservation Concern that might be found in your planned treatment area. Data can be viewed as photos or lists.
Facilities: this will provide you information on Wildlife Refuges or Fish hatcheries within your planned treatment area.
Wetlands: this will provide you wetland information pulled from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI).
The Site Characterization Report will begin filling in starting after summary statistics are calculated in Step 3 (Figure 15). The developing report is displayed in the Report tab and a preview of the static, formatted version can be seen by selecting Preview Report(Figure 16).
The report preview will display in the browser with additional formatting. Selecting Print Report will create a printable pdf version. Clicking Hide Report Preview will return the view to the developing report, which will change as the user adds or removes information from the various steps.
It may take a few minutes to generate the pdf after Print Report is selected. A 'Save As' dialog will appear when your report pdf is generated.
Planned Treatment Overview: The first part of the report will display an overview of the planned treatment. This includes the planned project name, the treatment/s, and an overview map. It also includes a brief description of the Land Treatment Exploration Tool.
Summary Statistics for the Planned Treatment Area: This section displays the information for the layers selected in Step 4: Summarize Your Proposed Treatment Area. Each layer will display the name, a short description, the summary table, and a thumbnail map for the layer (Figure 18). The PRISM section will also include the climatogram.
Vegetation cover and height: This section displays functional group values for annual herbaceous, bare ground, big sagebrush, herbaceous, sagebrush, and shrub cover. It also shows values for sagebrush and shrub height (Figure 19).
Notes about the summaries: There is a text box in the developing report beneath the summary statistics where the user can annotate notes they would like to include in the report (Figure 20). This text box is specifically for text regarding spatial statistics of the planned treatment area.
Wildfire History: This section specifically shows the wildfire frequency map and the annotations written in the Site History tab.
Treatment History: This section displays the treatment frequency map and the annotations written in the Site History tab.
Treatments selected from the Land Treatment Digital Library: This section displays the selected results from Step 6. The results are expanded to show the details for each selected treatment.
To contact the development team for the Exploration Tool, you can email: email@example.com .
|The right-side pane drops below the left-side pane.||Try to change the zoom of your browser window and refresh the page. Make sure you save your polygon, first.|
|Some of the layers are not showing up in the Layers/Legend.||Try to refresh your page, but make sure to save your polygon, first.|
|The climatogram does not load on the Site History Tab.||Click the retry button in the climatogram section of the Site History Tab.|
|One or more of the summary tables did not populate after Step 4.||Navigate back to Step 4 and click Add to Report again with the same tables still selected.|
|The maps in the report are too zoomed out.||In the developing report, zoom in on the main map at the top of the Report Tab. This should define the extent of the thumbnail maps in the report.|
|When Print Report is clicked, it seems like nothing happens.||This process takes a few minutes, so be patient while the computer builds the custom report. If the 'Save As' dialog never pops up after letting it sit for several minutes (>15min), try hiding the report preview and entering back into the report preview to print the pdf again.|
|The report pdf seems to have a weird formatting.||Try hiding the report preview and entering back into the report preview to print the pdf again.|
|The report map seems off center.||Try hiding the report preview and entering back into the report preview to print the pdf again. Zooming in and out of the developing report map can also fix this issue.|
|The search query returned 'Match query failed'||A large query or poor internet connection may cause the query to fail. It is advised to try a smaller buffer or boundary.|
Bray J.R. and Curtis J.T. (1957) An ordination of the upland forest communities of Southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographies, 27:325-349.
McCune, B. and Dylan, K. (2002) Equations for potential annual direct incident radiation and heat load. Journal of Vegetation Science, 13, 603-606.
McCune, B. and Grace, J.B. (2002) Analysis of Ecological Communities. Gleneden Beach, OR, USA: MjM Software. 304 p.
Pilliod, D.S. and Welty, J.L. (2013) Land Treatment Digital Library: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 806. Online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds806
Welty, J.L., Arkle, R.S., and Pilliod, D.S. (2017) Combined wildfire dataset for the United States and certain territories, 1870-2015: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release, Online at https://doi.org/10.5066/F75H7F5M